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IPODR - Help

IPODR Website Help
1. How are the County Reports organized?
2. How does one navigate the County Reports portion of the IPODR website
3. What acronyms are used on the IPODR website
4. What is shown in the tables included in the County Reports?
5. What is shown in the maps included in the County Reports?
6. What is shown in the trend diagrams included in the County Reports?
7. What are the data sources used in IPODR
8. Which mortality measures are available for which year?
9. What steps are undertaken to generate IPODR and the County Reports?

1. How are the County Reports organized?
Each California County Profile Report is subdivided into two main sections. The first section presents primarily county level data while the second section includes ZIP code level tabulations of the risk factors and outcomes presented in the first section.
The first section includes the following themes:
Demography
Socioeconomic background
Prenatal
Mortality outcomes
Birth weight and prematurity outcomes
Other outcomes
Each theme summarizes a selection of pertinent variables. For instance, the demography theme includes tabulations of the race/ethnicity and maternal age distribution at the county level, and the geographic distribution of births in a county. Each theme is presented using three components:
The Introduction briefly introduces the concepts discussed and relevant sources.
The Definitions section summarizes the definitions used to compile the data included.
The Tables and Figures section includes a county level tabulations for the most recent data year, a ZIP code level map, and a county level trend chart showing data for 1991 through 2004 or 2005.
Except for the Demography theme, each theme's variable(s) is/are presented in:
a county level tabulation showing the variable by maternal race/ethnicity and overall for the county and California;
a ZIP code level significance level map for the county;
a county level trend diagram displaying the county and California trend starting from 1991.
The second section includes ZIP code level tabulations of all the variables discussed in the first section. Three tables are presented:
Healthy People 2020 Objectives
Race/ethnicity distribution
All other variables
Navigation to any of the sections or themes can be accomplished in a number of ways and is explained in the next section of this document.
2. How does one navigate the County Reports of the IPODR website?
The primary navigation tool used on the County Reports is the menu bar that can be found at the top of each page. This menu bar allows quick access to the different sections of the County Report.
3. What acronyms are used on the IPODR Website
APNCUAdequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization
CCPRCalifornia County Profile Reports
CDPHCalifornia Department of Public Health
DRGDiagnosis Related Group
GDTGeographic Data Technology
GIFCompuServe Graphics Interchange Format
IPODRImproved Perinatal Outcome Data Reports
IPODMImproved Perinatal Outcome Data Management
LBWLow Birth Weight
NCHSNational Center for Health Statistics
OSHPDOffice of Statewide Health Planning and Development
PDDPatient Discharge Data
PDFPortable Document Format
VLBWVery Low Birth Weight
VSVital Statistics
WWWWorld Wide Web
XHTMLExtensible Hypertext Markup Language
ZCTAZip Code Tabulation Area
4. What is shown in the tables included in the County Reports?
ZIP code and county level tables are included in the County Reports. County level tables are presented by race/ethnicity and overall. Furthermore, for comparison purposes numbers for California are also presented.
For ZIP code level tables, any areas with fewer than 20 births are excluded from the display. In the case of a geographic area with 20 births or more, but fewer than 5 events, information is suppressed (***). As the rates based on events that occurred with a frequency of under 20 are likely statistically unstable, rates pertaining to events with a frequency of 5 to 19 are displayed in gray. Furthermore, ZIP codes of "00000" indicate a missing or invalid value in the data, or represent ZIP codes that had very few births and which are not found in any of the other data sources.
5. What is shown in the maps included in the County Reports?
Maps are a helpful tool for visually identifying in-need areas. The maps included in the CCPRs are based on ZIP codes representing the physical location of a residence. For the purpose of mapping ZIP code level information, any events occurring in point ZIP codes (i.e., ZIP codes with zero geographic area) were included in the enclosing ZIP code's numbers. A list of point ZIP codes and their enclosing ZIP codes is available in the ZIP Code inventory section for a county.
For smaller ZIP codes, one year of data does not provide enough information for significant statements, so we have combined three years of data on all maps.
For our maps, we have chosen an alternative map format to present geographic information. Traditionally, simple choropleth maps were used. Maps included in this report are significance level maps: Level is expressed by color and significance relative to overall California levels is expressed by pattern. For instance, a geographic region showing the darkest red color and a solid pattern shows the highest level and the rate or percentage observed is highly statistically significantly different from the level observed for California; a geographic region showing the darkest red color and a crosshatched or line pattern shows the highest level, but the rate or percentage observed is not highly statistically significantly different form the level observed for California, etc. Such a map will detract attention from geographic areas whose unusually high or low levels are relatively less important due to a too small population at risk or too few expected events.
Significance level maps are a variant on maps known as z-score maps. At the local level, the at risk population as well as the number of events might be too small to allow a statistically "good" estimation of a percentage or rate. A map showing just the level of a percentage or rate observed will be misleading as areas with a small population and extreme rates will be inappropriately highlighted.
A significance level map uses colors and patterns to make a more meaningful statement:
The color of an area indicates level. The pattern indicates significance for a two-tailed significance test at significance level 0.01.
Colors in Significance Level Maps
The maps all use a gradient of colors from yellow, orange, red to dark red. Yellow corresponds to the category summarizing the lowest percentages/rates observed while dark red corresponds to the highest percentages/rates observed.
The cut points chosen for the determination of different shadings of areas are dependent upon whether the displayed item has an associated Healthy People 2020 Objective or not.
For percentages or rates for which a Healthy People 2020 Objective exists, the first cut point is based on the Healthy People 2020 Objective. The second cut point is chosen as 125%, the third cutpoint is chosen as 150% of the objective. As an example, for the neonatal mortality rate, the Healthy People 2020 Objective is 2.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. The corresponding cut points for the map are: 2.9, 3.125 (2.9 * 1.25), and 4.35 (2.9 * 1.5). Locations with a neonatal mortality rate less than 2.9 are colored in yellow; locations with a neonatal mortality rate of 4.35 or higher are colored in dark red.
For percentages or rates for which a Healthy People 2020 Objective does not exist, the cut points are based on the distribution of the percentage/rate across CA ZIP codes weighted by the number of births. The first cut point is the first quartile. In other words, if we were to plot a map of all the ZIP codes in California, the areas highlighted in yellow would be the locations of roughly 25% of the births that occurred in California.
Patterns in Significance Level Maps
The maps presented all use either a solid pattern or some sort of broken pattern. Whether or not a solid or broken pattern is used depends on the result of a test of significance. The significance test performed depends on the data item being mapped.
For all percentages and rates for which a Healthy People 2020 Objective has been set, the significance test compares the observed percentage or rate to the Healthy People 2010 Objective. If an area's value is statistically signifcantly different from the one set forth by the Healthy People 2010 Objective, a solid pattern is used, otherwise a broken pattern.
For all percentages and rates for which a Healthy People 2020 Objective has not been set, the significance test compares the observed percentage or rate to the mean percentage or rate observed in California. If an area's value is statistically signifcantly different from the California mean, a solid pattern is used, otherwise a broken pattern.
For all tests of significance, we used a significance level of 0.01.
Note that it is quite possible that a pattern or color does not appear in a map.
As with tables, all maps can be viewed on-line. A high resolution version of each map can be downloaded in pdf format using a hotlink under each map. To see and print maps in pdf format, it is necessary to obtain Adobe Acrobat Reader.
The maps can also be saved by clicking on a map with the right mouse button, and then selecting Save target as... from the menu that pops up. This procedure will save the maps in GIF format.
6. What is shown in the trend diagrams included in the County Reports?
Trend diagrams are used to display time trends for each data item for which such data are available. All diagrams display California and county level trends. All trend diagrams include 95% confidence limits for the county mean predicted value. Where applicable, the 2020 objective is indicated by a labeled reference line.
As with tables and maps, all trend diagrams can be viewed on-line. A high resolution version of each trend diagram can be downloaded in pdf format using a hotlink under each graph. To see and print trend diagrams in pdf format, it is necessary to obtain Adobe Acrobat Reader.
The trend diagrams can also be saved by clicking on a trend diagrams with the right mouse button, and then selecting Save picture as... from the menu that pops up. This procedure will save the trend diagrams in GIF format.
7. What are the data Sources used in IPODR?
Click here to look at more information on the data sources used to obtain the IPODR tabulations.
8. What steps were undertaken to generate IPODR and the County Reports?
The following steps need to happen to generate the County Reports:
Obtain the VS/PDD linked file.
Obtain a valid inventory of ZIP codes for the corresponding year.
Validate the county-ZIP code combination in the VS/PDD linked file.
For invalid county-ZIP code combinations in the vital statistics data, assign '00000' as ZIP code. For invalid counties of residence, assign '000' as county of residence code.
Generate all IPODR variables based on the VS/PDD file and only retain those variables along with county and ZIP codes as IPODR base files.
Generate County Reports for each county.
All these steps are performed in SAS.

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